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Engine Nomenclature Explained | Labeling An Engine

Knowing An Internal Combustion Engine

Engines are the most interesting mechanical systems we all are fond of. Engines are an absolute masterpiece of engineering. Although it’s construction and working are complex yet it’s also fun to learn about it. In this series of blogs we will be discussing about all the aspects of an Internal combustion engine.

This blog is all about Engine Nomenclature. We will be discussing basic and important terms which are needed to understand engine working. So let’s get into it.

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1. Top Dead Centre

Top Dead Centre is also denoted as TDC. It is the position of the position where it is farthest from the crankshaft. TDC can also be defined as Piston position where the cylinder volume is minimum. It is the point from which ignition system measurements are carried out. It also help us to determine the firing order.

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2. Bottom Dead Centre

Bottom Dead Centre also written as BDC. It is the Position of the piston where it is nearest to the crankshaft. BDC can also be defined as Piston position such that the cylinder volume is maximum.

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3. Stroke

It is also called as the stroke length. It is the distance travelled by the piston from TDC to BDC. Or in simple words it is the distance travelled by piston movin up and down or vise versa. It is also associated to the types of engine. Stroke is also an important factor used to calculate the engine displacement.

4. Swept Volume

It is the volume between Top Dead Centre (TDC) and Bottom Dead Centre (BDC). Also we can explain it as the volume displaced by the piston when moving between TDC and BDC. (armstrongpharmacy.com) Therefore it is also known as Displacement Volume. It is usefull to determine the engine capacity.

5. Bore

It is the cross sectional area of an engine cylinder. In other words an engine bore is the inner diameter of the cylinder.

Multiplying the bore by the stroke length we can calculate the engine displacement. Again this number is multiplied by number of cylinders to get total displacement.

6. Clearance Volume

The volume between the cylinder head and the Piston when it is at TDC, is known as Clearance Volume of an engine. Compression ratio of an engine is derived by the ratio of clearance volume to the swept volume.

7. Piston

The Piston is the most important working element in the engine. The piston converts thermal energy into mechanical motion. Undoubtedly an important work. The force output of an expanding gas is thus converted into reciprocating motion which inturn will rotate the crankshaft.

Piston is a enclosed disc mostly made of Aluminium alloy. It is gas sealed with help of piston rings. Along with power conversion it also ensures no gas escape to the Crank-Shaft. Indeed why everyone was behind the “Piston-Cup”

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8. Crank Mechanism

Part 3 and 4 togather form the crank mechanism

Crank mechanism or simply known as crank. It is an arm attached to an rotating shaft at an right angle. The crank is used along with connecting rod to convert reciprocating motion into circular motion. It helps to provide the rotational motion to the crankshaft.

9. Valves

Valves form the most crucial part in the combustion engine. The valves does the job of regulating the intake and exhaust port. These mechanical component not only allow or restrict the fluid or gas to and fro but also forms the combustion chamber during power stroke.

10. Cylinder Wall

The cylinder wall prevents transfer of gasses from combustion chamber into crankcase. It acts as a seal against combustion gases and dissipate heat. It is the part under high pressure and temperature. The blocks are made of cast iron and alluminium alloy to increase thier strength.

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